Hargeisa (SH)- In the meantime, the international community is also blamed of having conflicting of interests and viewpoints which made decision-making unreliable. This rendered Somalia’s situation even more unpredictable and dire. Moreover, the growing influence of Somalia’s neighboring states within African Union Mission to Somalia AMISOM has damaged the mission’s reputation among Somalis.
These failings have not only further endangered AMISOM personnel, they have also undermined the mission’s effectiveness.6 However, Somaliland took a drastically different strategy; that indigenous contribution be mobilized and harmonized on the basis of building and
bargaining the restoration of peace and stability.
This was locally-driven, locally-financed, and context-based agenda for
the quest of peace and stability. Somaliland has made notable progress in building peace, security and constitutional democracy within its de facto borders
- In fact, the Somaliland model can teach the rest of Africa that African people are able to fix their problems without the western narratives of conflict resolution on peace-building. Although, Somaliland had taken preliminary but significant steps towards institutional and socio-cognitive standardization under Egal during the 1990s, the polity increasingly struggled to maintain this process during the first decade of the 21st centur
8 . Thus, all
2 United Nations, Security Council, 2013 Results of the Secretary General’s technical assessment mission to Somalia, pursuant to Security Council resolution 2093 (2013) 3 Centre for Research and Dialogue SOMALILAND Understanding War, Nationalism and State Trajectories as discourses of the conflict and peace-building in Somalia had
been viewed as an agenda that the regional states in the Horn of Africa combined with the international community often should dictate and compete upon.
To the contrary, Somaliland has remained more isolated but peaceful and recovering through building its home-grown peace-building process and conflict resolution modalities. This has led to the recognition
of the traditional elders as peacemaking actors.
Consequently, in the historical point of view (both pre-colonial and postcolonial), the traditional governance and strong customary
practices were all central and convincing in Somaliland. However, Somalia had never succeeded in cultivating such home-grown traditional governance and locally adequate cultural horizons of pursuit to maintain peace and stability.
It has been the practice of all successive governments since
independence to incorporate clan leaders, and therefore clans, into the administration through the appointment of caaqilo (s. caaqil), salaadiin (s. suldaan), Garaado (s. Garaad) and Ugaasyo ( s. Ugaas).
9 Some intellectuals like university students, academicians, Diaspora people, civil society members and business communities who participated in discussions towards the preparation of this paper revealed that the colonial differences between Britain and Italy had extensively made some dramatic effect on the social and political life style of Somaliland and Somalia. Somaliland was under the system of indirect rule the Caaqil acted and served as an intermediary, assisting in implementation of administration’s policies.
10 Moreover, in Somalia, the insecurity, and on daily basis explosion, constrained the overall efforts of reviving the hope to maintain peace and stability in Somalia over the past three decades. The
internationally sponsored peacekeeping missions deployed in
Somalia for several times, like the African Union Mission to
Somalia (AMISOM) operating since in 2007 have failed in
most instances to institute peace.
The Security Council resolution (2297) authorized Member States of the AU to maintain the deployment of AMISOM up to a maximum level
of 22,126 uniformed personnel until 31 May 2017, and further adds that AMISOM is authorized to take all necessary measures.
11 The externally led interventions of Somalia and political instability distorted the peace- building and state building trajectory by resuming a cycle of violence and insecurity over the past decades in Somalia. Mohamed Abdalla Elmi, independent Somali intellectual argues that
Somalia peace- building process was initially politicized.
He further noticed that consecutive external interventions combined with a lot of money spent on conferences outside Somalia ended up with no substantial outcomes achieved, whereas in Somaliland, the clans directly invested in the peace process with their own resources as livestock.
12” From this viewpoint, many people interviewed like women, youth and Diaspora people argue that external actors are not unilaterally
liable to the whole problems of Somalia since Somali politicians and traditional elders cannot maintain peace. This is
Processes of Institutional and Socio-Cognitive Standardization, PhD Thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science
9 Academy for Peace and Development (APD), Consolidation and Decentralization of Government Institutions, 2002, Draft Only, http://www.somalijna.org/downloads/Jimcaale%20- %20APD%20Governance%20and%20Dcentralisation%20of%20Institution.pdf 10 Ibid 11 United Nations – Security Council Resolution 2297(2016) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7731st meeting, on 7 July 2016 12 Interview with Mohamed Abdalla Elmi independent intellectual and human rights activist,2017, Hargeisa, Somaliland
14249 Mohamed A. Mohamoud Barawani, Somaliland and somalia peace- building process: actors, interventions, and experiences
a contrary view against firm allegations of the external actors.
United Nations agencies and other regional organizations came to Somalia to help the victims of the war and provide assistance to thousands of displaced people who were in desperate need of food, medicine and water.
13 It is obvious that there are prevalent assumptions on the part of both Somalis and non-Somalis that this model of top down peace-building and state-building trajectory failed and did not tackle the
prolonged violent conflict of Somalia; something that cannot always be said of the inorganic, top-down state-building projects associated with national reconciliation conferences that have not only failed but have often undermined local polities in the process, leaving the country worse off than before.
14 What is different to understand is the apparent inability or reluctance of many foreign governments, international institutions and Somali politicians to recognize that they keep repeating the same mistakes.
15 From this standpoint, the paper dwells more on the drawbacks of the externally led peace-building process especially in a context that bloody conflict and political disintegration overshadowed Somalia. The regional states and international community raised arguments that Somalia cannot be a forgotten, considering that the country’s problems like terrorism, refugees’ influx of human trafficking, piracy and other
insecurity measures have consequences on neighboring countries.
Civil war, insecurity and anarchic violence in much of the
country combine with drought and famine sweeping through
the Horn of Africa to threaten much of the surviving Somali
population with further massive loss of life.
16 During the first civil war in the early nineties, the long period of statelessness and the current humanitarian crisis, urgent need exists for assistance to the civilian population of Somalia.
17 Somalia’s crisis also needs in depth understanding, analytical thoughts, and competence of the local politicians. The reality of getting a
better solution of sustainable peace in Somalia is still farfetched and requires a lot of interdependent elements and patterns of the grass-root participation, ownership and full comprehension roadmap.
A Somali proverb asserts, ‘milil guud kii lama dhayo’ meaning if you need to cure a disease you first diagnose properly before ordering the prescription. Therefore, the indigenous model of Somaliland and recollection of the Somali history in general, can help in the understanding of the Somali contemporary history of peacemaking and peace-building.
Somaliland’s experience is a classical and encouraging signal for the rest of the Somalispeaking communities. Many Somalilanders as politicians and normal citizens strongly believe that the way Somaliland has restored its peace is empirical and remains living experiences.
International observers ascribed the alleged uniqueness and apparent success of its state- building project to process of traditional reconciliation, grassroots, the blending traditional and modern form of governance into so-called hybrid political 13 Calleb Otieno Ongoma, Pontian Godfrey Okoth, Frank Khachina Matanga, Role of External Actor Involvement In Somalia Peace Building Processes,2016, International Journal of Recent Research in Social Sciences and Humanities IJRRSSH) Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp: (166-186), Month: April 2016 – June 2016,Available at: www.paperpublications.org 14 Ken Menkhaus, 2006, Governance without Government in Somalia, Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping, International Security, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Winter 2006/07), pp. 74–106 15 Mary Harper – Getting Somalia Wrong – Faith, war and hope in a shattered state, African arguments, 2012
16 Amnesty International – Somalia – A Human Rights Disaster, 1992 17 Bjorn Moller, The Somali Conflict – the Role of External Actors, 2009, DiisDanish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen
18 Although it is not recognized internationally, Somaliland has a growing economy and a democratic political system which works better than many others on the continent.
19 Somaliland’s peace-building process was voluntary. Grass-root communities played a leading role in developing a peace-building compact, including the creation of a state that all constitutes endorse, in order to safeguard the law, order, and prevent violent conflicts. However, Somaliland has also faced challenges that threatened to destabilize the country.
“The restoration of peace and stability was a collective responsibility in Somaliland both politicians and normal citizens participated making peace and preventing violent conflict.20” A well known Somali poet, Yusuf Osman Abdille (Shaacir), believes that Somaliland peace- building process succeeded because of three reasons: (a) local
ownership and inclusivity of the process which all clans inhabitant in Somaliland participated
(b) the duration was short because the peace- building conferences were hosted mostly by clans in the regions and districts in Somaliland and this short period of time pressured in every conference to be reached an outcome, (c) Somaliland traditional authorities have supremacy and credibility to resolve the social and political conflicts.
“Somaliland and Somalia peace- building process had great distinctions primarily cultural difference is rooted by colonial style of governance which traditional elders as Aqils in Somaliland was formed during the British era 1884-1960.21” Hence, the absence of international recognition in Somaliland seemed to be posing more coherent challenges to peacebuilding and stability, but it curtailed the aspiration of all international interventions and competing interests.
However, Somaliland which is a post-conflict society proved to empower the grass-root people to obtain the capacity to mitigate and
manage any violent conflict that may harm local initiatives of the peace- building and conflict transformation arrangements.
There is a range of issues of peacemaking and violent conflict
prevention interventions that Somaliland alone handled within
a short period of time. Political and social reconciliations were
in the forefront in every attempt to peace-building, reconstruction, and demobilization.
Rebuilding the devastated infrastructure and improving social and economic services were key incentives that fostered Somaliland to in place the foundation of long lasting peace and political stability.
Somaliland’s state-making process has been labeled ‘unique’, ‘peaceful’, ‘democratic’, and ‘bottom-up.
22 Laying the foundation of the workable governance style as multi-party political system was commended by the international community who dedicated to the peace- building and state building process in Somaliland and Somalia.
Therefore, it is remarkable to mention that traditional elders in Somaliland worked as alternative governance throughout history and they were inevitable actors in Somaliland’s modern history of post-
18 Dominik Balthasar.cont..
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