Somaliland and Somalia peace-building process has had some divergent,part 1


Mohamed A. Mohamoud Barawani
PhD candidate, University for Peace, Costa Rica
Hargeisa (SH)-Somaliland and Somalia peace-building process has had some divergent experiences, actors and interventions. The reconciliation efforts in the peace-building initiatives in Somaliland, for instance, did not commence at the time Mohamed Siyad Barre’s regime was defeated.

It was the agenda of the Somali National Movement (SNM) to reconcile the clans which have been engaged in a long period of fighting since 1988-1990. This is subsequently facilitated the restoration of peace and stability in Somaliland.

This process has also promoted traditional authorities and political actors to come together at a time the situation was very critical and devastating in Somaliland. In contrary, United Somali Congress (USC) in Mogadishu Somalia had immediately faced the new cycle of violent conflict, destruction and retaliations among clans. In fact, these new bloody civil wars were blamed on the USC which were split into two wings one was leading by General Mohamed Farah Aided and other led by Ali Mahdi Mohamed.

This has in the onset portrayed the scale of the problem in Somalia especially in Mogadishu. The international community response to the Somalia crisis contributed to the deterioration of violent conflict that
sized many regions in Somalia in the post Siyad Barre period from 1991 onwards.

This implies that external interventions in Somalia such as the deployment of peacekeeping forces of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) did not bring any solution to the longstanding problems in Somalia. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the distinction and modalities between the peace-building process in Somaliland and Somalia and will attempt to raise these questions:
who are the actors involved or leading the initiative of peace -building in Somaliland and

how were the peace-building interventions conducted by considering the historical, social, cultural, religious and political organizations in both regions?; and what lessons and experiences can be learned.?
*Corresponding author:
Copyright ©2017, Mohamed A. Mohamoud Barawani.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The devastating violent conflict of Somalia is rooted in the injustice, inequality, favoritism and gross human rights violations that were committed by the regime of Mohamed
Siyad Barre. The Union established in 1960 brought enormous injustice and suffering to the people of the region.1 There are a lot of dissimilarities between Somaliland and Somalia in terms of historical, political and social structures which the peacebuilding trajectory followed in the aftermath of the regime’s collapse in 1991.

Traditional Elders and Rebel Movements  duplicative and confused, rendering the net result suboptimal.2 Meddling in Somalia’s affairs by external actors has been a chronic obstacle to peace.3 Some intellectuals both Somalis and non-Somali are profoundly in dispute that the denial of the context-based approaches will never be successful and realistic
as Somalia experienced for a long time.

The claim that some external actors have a vested interest in perpetuating Somalia’s state of war and collapse is very popular in Somali circles and can, in its cruder variations, constitute a conspiracy theory.4 On the other hand, the problems of Somalia cannot only be
blamed on the interventions of external actors but problems of deeper proportion, which is another aspect this paper examines in order to unveil the challenges Somalia’s peacebuilding process has encountered. Somalia remains an area where volatile and insecure conditions continue to motivate interventions,

5 there are various analysis revealed that Somalia insecurity implications triggered neighboring countries such as Kenya and Ethiopia to joint African Union Mission to Somalia AMISON where such frontline countries have never been welcomed due to the fear conflict of interest. Somalia’s peace-building initiatives were not mostly driven by domestic actors due to huge fragmentation of social and political disintegration and the absence of the traditional elders’ national ownership. As a result, the international community is accused that their interventions are not context-oriented and not based on the realities on the groundbreaking. cont…

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